In 2004 modern was AJAX
In 2006 modern was jQuery
In 2010 modern was Angular 1
In 2012 modern was Node.js
In 2014 modern was React and
In 2016 modern was Angular 2.
In 2014 with ES5 / web standards 2014, Salesforce also came up with, Lightning Component framework with its own component model and its own modular programming model (aura) filling up the gaps in web standards.
This multiple frameworks problem has given rise the reason for re-standardization of web standards. As the result in last 5 years we have seen an unprecedented level of innovation and standardization. And then.., the web stack looks very different today than it did five years ago.
Many features that required frameworks now come standard: you no longer need a proprietary component model, proprietary language extensions, proprietary modules, etc.
Now..!, Salesforce has launched lightning web component(lwc) a new programming model based on latest 2019 web stack.